This copy downloaded on by authorized user Henry Craig. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted. Designation: E 13 Standard Guide for Planar Flaw Height Sizing by Ultrasonics1 This standard is issued under the fixed designation E; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval.
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This copy downloaded on by authorized user Henry Craig. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted. Designation: E 13 Standard Guide for Planar Flaw Height Sizing by Ultrasonics1 This standard is issued under the fixed designation E; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision.
A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A superscript epsilon indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval. Parameters such and Certification as search units, examination surface conditions, material composition, etc. Terminology results.
It is recommended that users assess accuracy and 3. After flaw-sizing evaluation has of a flaw and the component surface at essentially 90 degrees.
During tip- standard. The values given in parentheses are for information diffraction flaw sizing, the flaw tip signal and flaw base signal only. It is the opposite the surface on which the search unit is placed. For responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro- example, when examining pipe from the outside surface the priate safety and health practices and determine the applica- far-surface would be the inside pipe surface.
Referenced Documents that they have a maximum sensitivity at a predetermined depth 2. Focusing effect may be E Terminology for Nondestructive Examinations obtained with the use of dual-element search units having both refracted and roof angles applied to each element. For example, when examining Current edition approved June 1, Published June Originally pipe from the outside surface the near-surface would be the approved in Last previous edition approved in as E - DOI: outside pipe surface.
Wilson Blvd. E 13 3. Basis of Application sometimes the search unit using an incident angle that produces a nominal 70 L wave in the examination piece.
The 70 L wave reflects performing examinations to this standard shall be qualified in off a planar flaw and is received by the search unit as a 70 L accordance with a nationally or internationally recognized wave. Summary of Guide document and certified by the employer or certifying agency, 4. The practice or standard used and its applicable sizing techniques.
The appli- 4. Significance and Use 6. These practices are applicable to through-wall sizing of me- chanical or thermal fatigue flaws, stress corrosion flaws, or any 7. Ultrasonic Flaw Sizing Methods other surface-connected planar flaws. This method ferritic or austenitic components.
Other materials may be has considerable potential for use when approximating flaw examined using this guide with appropriate standardization size, or, determining that the flaw is far-surface connected. The practices described are applicable to both 7. At to accurately measure the flaw size. This guide does not include the surface, a longitudinal wave cannot exist independently of the use of signal amplitude methods to determine flaw size.
The headwave is always generated if a wave mode thirds; the inner 13, the middle 13 and the near Using the with higher velocity the longitudinal wave is coupled to a far-surface Creeping Wave Method the user can qualitatively wave mode with lower velocity the direct shear wave at an segregate the flaw into the approximate 13 zone. The longitudinal wave continuously energizes the 5. It can be concluded that the longitudinal wave, tively size the crack, that is, Tip-diffraction for the far 13, which in fact creeps along the surface, is completely attenu- Bi-Modal method for the middle 13, and the Focused Longi- ated a short distance from the location of the excitation.
With the. These 13 zones are generally applicable to most sizing propagation of the near-surface creeping wave and its continu- applications, however, the various sizing methods have appli- ous conversion process at each point it reaches, the energy 2 Copyrighted material licensed to Cameron International by Thomson Scientific, Inc.
E 13 FIG. Thus, the wave front of the headwave includes the head of the far surface. The sensitivity range of the far-surface creeping the creeping wave, direct and indirect shear waves. The far-surface creeping wave, headwave arrives at the far-surface of the component, the same as reflected from the base of a far-surface notch or flaw, will wave modes will be generated which were responsible for convert its energy into a headwave since the same principles generating the shear wave energy, due to the physical law of apply as established earlier for the near-surface creeping wave.
Thus, the indirect shear wave and part of the direct The shear wave will continue to convert at multiple V-paths if shear wave will convert into a far-surface creeping wave and a the material has low attenuation and noise levels.
The far-surface creeping wave 7. Additionally, these reflec- approaches a far-surface connected reflector, three different tion mechanisms are responsible for a beam offset so that there signals will occur in sequence: 1 degree longitudinal wave is a maximum far-surface creeping wave sensitivity at about 5 direct reflection; 2 mode-converted signal; and 3 FIG. E 13 A far-surface creeping wave signal, as a result of mode correlating to these diffraction centers are identified, it is conversion of the indirect shear wave.
The tip-diffraction method relies on this tends to within approximately 10 to 16 mm 0. Although the tip-diffraction concept sounds simple, of the scanning surface near surface , the direct longitudinal there are many other signals that may complicate screen wave will reflect from the upper extremity of the flaw face, interpretation. When ultrasound strikes a sizing method discussed later. There are two standardiza- the mode converted signal will occur at a typical wall tion and measuring techniques for tip-diffraction sizing: 1 thickness-related position.
This mode converted signal results The Time of Flight TOF technique that measures the arrival from the headwave or direct shear wave, which mode converts time of the tip-diffracted signal from the top of the flaw and the degree longitudinal wave that impinges on the reflector locates the top of the flaw with respect to the near surface; and at its highest part; it is reflected as a degree longitudinal 2 The Delta Time of Flight TOF technique that measures wave back to the search unit as depicted by position 1 in Fig.
The presence of the mode-converted echo is a strong corner reflector signal at the far surface. In the case of smooth or at least open flaws, sizing technique is a tip-diffraction technique that takes advan- amplitude versus height function curves can give a coarse tage of uniquely locating the flaw tip. The signal from the flaw estimate of flaw height. This directed to the search unit Fig.
Since the far-surface technique is illustrated in Fig. Note that here the second creeping wave is not a surface wave, it will not interact with half-V path is possible also.
When the search unit is moved weld root convexity and will not produce an indication from away from the flaw, the tip echo may again be obtained after the root as shown by position 1 in Fig.
However, if the the tip-diffracted signal reflects off the opposite surface of the search unit is moved too far toward the weld centerline, the component. With the second half-V path technique, the tip direct shear wave beam could result in a root signal, but there signal will occur later in time than the signal from the flaw is at least 5 mm 0. The far-surface creeping wave signal is a clear, sharp signal with a larger amplitude than the mode converted signal.
NOTE 1It is very important that the user be extremely conscious of the weld geometry when using the second half-V path since, for example, the It does not have as smooth an echo-dynamic behavior as does counterbore can exaggerate flaw height. Technique is applied by observing the arrival time difference While the flaw tends to cast a shadow, diffraction occurs at the between the flaw corner reflector signal and the diffracted flaw tips and ultrasonic energy is bent to fill part of the shadow signal from the flaw tip while both are simultaneously present region.
Sharp edges are diffraction centers tending to radiate on the ultrasonic instrument display. While using this spherical or cylindrical wave fronts as though they were technique, the ultrasonic beam diameter must be greater than actually ultrasonic point or line sources.
In this to its shorter sound path. The tip signal amplitude is very small 5 Copyrighted material licensed to Cameron International by Thomson Scientific, Inc. To measure flaw height, it is necessary to note the difference in the time of arrival between the two signals, then apply the following formula: 6 Copyrighted material licensed to Cameron International by Thomson Scientific, Inc.
The tip-diffraction read directly in flaw height. This standardization method will methods can be valid for a wide range of flaw heights. The be addressed in the standardization section. Separation be- prerequisites are that the tip of the flaw and the tip signal be tween the doublets should remain constant as the signals move distinguishable from other signals.
For very shallow flaws, the across the screen. The echo dynamic of the doublet is asyn- tip signal may be masked by the flaw corner-reflector signal chronous; however, since it is the fixed interval between the due to poor resolution.
A search unit with a shorter pulse doublet arrival times that is measured, it is not necessary to duration will improve this limitation. Broadband search units maximize the response from either signal.
This technique have been noted for their short pulse durations; however, due to allows measurement when the weld crown is wide, preventing dispersion in austenitic stainless steel weld metal, it may be maximization of the tip signal.
It may also be possible to note beneficial to select a narrow-band search unit with greater a tip signal after reflection from the back surface second penetrating characteristics.
This argument holds true for very half-V path. The principles are the same as for the first half-V deep flaws also. When the flaw is located in the weld region or path except that the tip signal will appear later in time than the very near the weld region, longitudinal waves may be consid- corner reflector signal. Whether using the first or second half-V ered for the tip-diffraction method. Longitudinal waves may path, accuracy of the height measurement depends on the flaw help locate weak tip-diffracted signals in highly attenuative orientation.
If the flaw is vertical, then the measurement is stainless steel but reflection from the component far surface accurate. If the flaw is oriented toward the search unit, the first should be avoided due to mode conversion. A very important half-V path measurement will overestimate the height and the factor in the sizing of planar flaws using the tip-diffraction second half-V path measurement will underestimate the height.
To size with this method, The opposite occurs for flaws oriented away from the search the user must be able to identify two signals: 1 a signal that unit. The task of identifying the involved in tip diffraction, the method relies on the users two signals is complicated by the high-amplitude noise signals ability to uniquely identify the location of the flaw tip.
The and geometric signals from the component surface. Some signal need not originate singly from diffraction, since reflec- ultrasonic instruments allow the user the option of using the tion can also occur very near the flaw tip.
In fact, reflection is un-rectified or rectified display RF display signals. In many the mechanism that will primarily be observed when using cases, an RF display facilitates in distinguishing the tip signal notched reference blocks.
It is reasonable to expect some from noise signals by identifying the phase of the signals. The reflection to occur at an actual flaw tip.
The associated rough signal from the tip of the flaw must always peak when the texture will often act as a good scattering center. It should be search unit is moved forward from the point where the corner noted, however, that this may not be true in every case and the signal is maximized for first half-V path or backed up from amplitudes of the signals received may be dB below the the point where the corner signal is maximized for second flaw corner-reflector signal amplitude.
ASTM E2190: Insulating Glass Unit Performance and Evaluation
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