Taxonomy[ edit ] The genus Corynebacterium was created by Lehmann and Neumann in as a taxonomic group to contain the bacterial rods responsible for causing diphtheria. The genus was defined based on morphological characteristics. Based on studies of 16S- rRNA , they have been grouped into the subdivision of gram-positive eubacteria with high G : C content, with close phylogenetic relationship to Arthrobacter , Mycobacterium , Nocardia , and Streptomyces. Two examples of these conserved signature indels are a two-amino-acid insertion in a conserved region of the enzyme phosphoribose diphosphate:decaprenyl-phosphate phosphoribosyltransferase and a three-amino-acid insertion in acetate kinase , both of which are found only in Corynebacterium species.
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Rassoulian Barrett ,1 Brad T. Cookson ,1,2 LaDonna C. Carlson ,3 Kathryn A. Bernard ,4 and Marie B. Rassoulian Barrett Brad T. Cookson LaDonna C. Carlson Kathryn A. Bernard Marie B. Phone: Fax: E-mail: ude. Abstract Corynebacterium matruchotii has been the subject of numerous dental pathogenesis studies. The purpose of the present study was to resolve concerns about diversity within the reference strains of C.
Analysis of whole-cell fatty acid profiles with the library generation software of Microbial ID Inc. These three groups of organisms were also distinguishable by DNA-DNA dot blot hybridization, by sequences of two hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene, and by the pyrrolidonyl arylamidase test.
These studies indicate that two C. The colonial morphology and biochemical reactions of the C. Strain ATCC is unique and represents a novel species. The seminal paper by Gilmour et al. Based on chemotaxonomic characteristics, Bacterionema matruchotii was assigned to the genus Corynebacterium by Collins et al.
Since the database included most other recognized Corynebacterium species of human origin, we suspected that the developers had encountered some unresolvable discrepancies with representative strains of this species.
To explore this possibility, we purchased all strains of C. Because a large body of work has been published on the possible role of C. The present study was designed to examine the taxonomic relatedness of commercially available and other reference strains of C. The question was addressed on the basis of whole-cell fatty acid analyses, DNA-DNA dot blot hybridizations, sequencing of two hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene, and biochemical reactions.
Takazoe, Tokyo, Japan. Bernard, were also studied because they are similar to the C. Media and biochemical tests. Louis, Mo. Conventional biochemical tests were done as described by Krech and Hollis 18 , including enteric fermentation media with Andrade indicator.
As previously described by Gavin et al. For confirmation of h results, the carbohydrate reactions in the strip also were read after incubation for 48 h. API profile numbers were referenced to the version 2 database. Whole-cell fatty acid analyses were performed as previously described 7. The organisms were grown on TSBA. MIDI system, and data were analyzed with the library generation software of MIDI, which is a program that provides two-dimensional cluster plots as well as dendrograms based on cluster analysis.
The two-dimensional plots were based on principal component analysis. Principal Component 1 is the component responsible for the greatest degree of variability among the samples tested and is represented on the horizontal axis. Principal Component 2 is responsible for the second greatest degree of variability and is displayed on the vertical axis. The scale for both axes is the Euclidean distance. The DNA extraction procedure was described previously 6. In order to select hypervariable regions likely to be unique for each taxon, the 16S rRNA gene sequences in nine Corynebacterium species were compared using the Baylor College of Medicine search launcher ClustalW version 1.
Two regions of over 40 bp in length were chosen and termed hypervariable region 1, corresponding to Escherichia coli 16S rRNA positions to , and hypervariable region 2, corresponding to positions to After amplification, mineral oil was removed by the addition of chloroform J. Baker, Phillipsburg, N. Microcon microconcentrators Amicon, Inc.
Nucleotide sequence accession number. Fatty acid profiles of all strains were analyzed with the library generation software of MIDI, resulting in the two-dimensional plot shown in Fig. A dental clinical isolate of C. The major fatty acid peaks of the group A true C.