Thyristors of silicon Controlled rectifiers, SCRs are semiconductor devices that can act as electronic switches sometimes controlling circuits with high voltage and current levels. As such these electronics components are used for many power control applications, often where current and voltage levels are relatively high. Thyristors may also be used in lower power applications including light control, as well as for power supply protection and many other applications. Thyristors are simple to use and cheap to buy, making them an ideal option for many circuits.
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Thyristors of silicon Controlled rectifiers, SCRs are semiconductor devices that can act as electronic switches sometimes controlling circuits with high voltage and current levels. As such these electronics components are used for many power control applications, often where current and voltage levels are relatively high. Thyristors may also be used in lower power applications including light control, as well as for power supply protection and many other applications.
Thyristors are simple to use and cheap to buy, making them an ideal option for many circuits. The idea for the thyristor is not new. The idea for the device was first put forward in by William Shockley, one of the inventors of the transistor. Although some later investigation of the device was undertaken by others a couple of years later, it was not until the early s when they became available. After the introduction of the thyristor, they soon became popular for electronic switching and power supply circuits.
The thyristor may be considered a rather an unusual form of electronics component because it consists of four layers of differently doped silicon rather than the three layers of the conventional bipolar transistors.
Whereas conventional bipolar transistors may have a p-n-p or n-p-n structure with the electrodes named collector, base and emitter, the thyristor has a p-n-p-n structure with the outer layers with their electrodes referred to as the anode n-type and the cathode p-type.
The control terminal of the SCR is named the gate and it is connected to the p-type layer that adjoins the cathode layer. The first reason for using silicon for thyistors is that silicon is the ideal choice because of its overall properties. It is able to handle the voltage and currents required for high power applications. Additionally it has good thermal properties. The second major reason is that silicon technology is well established and it is widely used for a variety of semiconductor devices.
As a result it is very cheap and easy for semiconductor manufacturers to use for their electronic components. Thyristor applications Thyristors, or silicon controlled rectifiers, SCRs are used in many areas of electronics where they find uses in a variety of different applications.
Some of the more common applications for them are outlined below: AC power control including lights, motors,etc. AC power electronic switching. Overvoltage protection crowbar for power supplies.
Control elements in phase angle triggered controllers. Within photographic flash lights where they act as the electronic switch to discharge a stored voltage through the flash lamp, and then cut it off at the required time. Thyristors are able to switch high voltages and withstand reverse voltages making them ideal for electronic switching applications, especially within AC scenarios.
Thyristor discovery The idea for the thyristor was first described by Shockley in It was referred to as a bipolar transistor with a p-n hook-collector. The mechanism for the operation was analysed further in by Ebers. Then in Moll investigated the switching mechanism of the thyristor. Development continued and more was learned about the device such that the first silicon controlled rectifiers became available in the early s where it started to gain a significant level of popularity for power switching.
When GE launched their devices, they used the term silicon controlled rectifier, or SCR, because it only conducted in one direction and was controllable. They used the name SCR as a trade mark for their products. How does a thyristor work? The way in which a thyristor operates is different to other devices. Normally no current flows across the device. However if a supply is connected across the device, and a small amount of current is injected into the gate, then the device will "fire" and conduct.
It will remain in the conducting state until the supply is removed. To see how the thyristor operates, it is worth looking at a thyristor equivalent circuit. For the sake of an explanation, the thyristor circuit can be considered as two back to back transistors. The first transistor with its emitter connected to the cathode of the thyristor is an NPN transistor, whereas a second transistor with its emitter connected to the anode of the thyristor, SCR is a PNP transistor. The gate is connected to the base of the NPN transistor as shown below.
Thyristor equivalent circuit When a voltage is applied across a thyristor no current flows because neither transistor is conducting.
However, if a voltage is applied to the gate this will cause current to flow in the base and this causes TR2 to turn on. Once TR2 is on, this pulls down the base of TR1 causing this transistor to turn on, and in turn this pushes current through the base of TR2 meaning that the device will remain on even if the gate voltage is removed. As might be expected the gate is the control terminal while the main current flows between the anode and cathode.
As can be imagined from its circuit symbol shown below, the device is a "one way device" giving rise to the GE name of silicon controlled rectifier. Therefore when the device is used with AC, it will only conduct for a maximum of half the cycle.
In operation, the thyristor or SCR will not conduct initially. It requires a certain level of current to flow in the gate to "fire" it. Once fired, the thyristor will remain in conduction until the voltage across the anode and cathode is removed - this obviously happens at the end of the half cycle over which the thyristor conducts.
The next half cycle will be blocked as a result of the rectifier action. It will then require current in the gate circuit to fire the SCR again. In this way the thyristor can be used as an electronic switch. The silicon controlled rectifier, SCR or thyristor symbol used for circuit diagrams or circuit seeks to emphasis its rectifier characteristics while also showing the control gate.
As a result the thyristor symbol shows the traditional diode symbol with a control gate entering near the junction. This enables the thyristor to switch high voltages and currents, although it only over one half of the cycle. Circuits can to dim lights, control motors and generally switch high voltages and currents. Thyristors are rather unique components and their specifications and datasheet parameters are different to other more widely used electronic components like bipolar transistors and JFETs, MOSFETs, etc.
Other types of thyristor or SCR There is a number of different types thyristor - these are variants of the basic component, but they offer different capabilities that can be used in various instances and may be useful for certain circuits.
Within a reverse conducting thyristor, the device itself and the diode do not conduct at the same time. This means that they do not produce heat simultaneously. As a result they can be integrated and cooled together.
The RCT can be used where a reverse or freewheel diode would otherwise be needed. Reverse conducting thyristors are often used in frequency changers and inverters. To assist in this process a negative gate voltage can sometimes be applied. In addition to reducing the anode cathode voltage.
This reverse gate voltage helps in draining the minority carriers stored on the n-type base region and it ensures that the gate-cathode junction is not forward biased. The structure of the GATT is similar to that of the standard thyristor, except that the narrow cathode strips are often used to enable the gate to have more control because it is closer to the centre of the cathode.
This device is unusual in the thyristor family because it can be turned off by simply applying a negative voltage to the gate - there is no requirement to remove the anode cathode voltage. See further page in this series more fully describing the GTO. As a result it is possible to make the second junction, often referred to as J2 see page on the device structure can be made much thinner. The resulting n-base region provides a reduced Von as well as improved turn on time and turn off time.
Thyristors are widely used in many areas of electronics acting as electronic switches. Thyristor circuits can be used for many power applications as these electronics components are able to switch high currents very easily. In addition to this these they are very cheap and they are widely available.
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Introduction[ edit ] The thyristor is a four-layered, three-terminal semiconductor device, with each layer consisting of alternately N-type or P-type material, for example P-N-P-N. The main terminals, labelled anode and cathode, are across all four layers. The control terminal, called the gate, is attached to p-type material near the cathode. A variant called an SCS—silicon controlled switch—brings all four layers out to terminals. The operation of a thyristor can be understood in terms of a pair of tightly coupled bipolar junction transistors , arranged to cause a self-latching action: Structure on the physical and electronic level, and the thyristor symbol. Thyristors have three states: Reverse blocking mode — Voltage is applied in the direction that would be blocked by a diode Forward blocking mode — Voltage is applied in the direction that would cause a diode to conduct, but the thyristor has not been triggered into conduction Forward conducting mode — The thyristor has been triggered into conduction and will remain conducting until the forward current drops below a threshold value known as the "holding current" Function of the gate terminal[ edit ] The thyristor has three p-n junctions serially named J1, J2, J3 from the anode.
Thyristor & Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR) – Thyristors Applications
Tygotaur Help Center Find new research papers in: Measure the parameters 2 3 3 2 1 2 0 2 1 2 3 2 of controlled rectifiers with R and RL load e. Describe the construction of operating principle, V-I characteristics cs power courz. Grafham General Electric Co. Each student will have to maintain dated work diary consisting of individual contribution in the project work and give a seminar presentation of it before submission. Use pulse transformer in triggering of SCR.
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What is a Thyristor, SCR?