Instrumentation[ edit ] The Sinfonia Concertante is scored for solo oboe , solo clarinet , solo horn , solo bassoon , and an orchestra of two horns, two oboes, and strings. A typical performance lasts about 28 minutes. Movements[ edit ] The work consists of three movements : Allegro , in common time. This movement is in sonata form with three expositions rather than two — one played by the orchestra, the other two by the soloists. It contains a written cadenza before the coda.
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Schwetzingen or Mannheim, May — d. Karlsruhe, He was born in Schwetzingen, a German town situated just to the southeast of Mannheim. He studied piano, cello, and singing with his father, Innocenz Danzi, the Italian-born principal cellist and composer in the Mannheim orchestra, under the direction of Johann Stamitz. Franz also studied composition with the renowned Georg Joseph Vogler, who was also the composition instructor of both Carl Maria von Weber and Giacomo Meyerbeer.
At the age of fifteen, Franz joined the Mannheim orchestra as a cellist. Shortly thereafter, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart visited Mannheim for five months to hear the revolutionary orchestra in person. Shortly thereafter, Danzi composed and published the first of his woodwind compositions. While Innocenz Danzi moved to Munich to continue playing in the orchestra, the younger Danzi stayed in Mannheim to perform in the orchestra of the newly established National Theater until , when he was appointed to replace his father as principal cellist in the Munich court orchestra.
The sinfonia concertante—essentially a concerto for two or more instruments and orchestra—was originally a French genre, and despite never having traveled to France, Danzi consumed French music during his time at the Mannheim court.
In this piece, one can clearly see the influence of Stamitz in its orchestration. Like Stamitz, Danzi indicates in the manuscript that oboes may be replaced with clarinets. There is no record of a performance of the piece occurring until March of at the Reichssender Munich. In the three-movement Sinfonia Concertante, Danzi displays a well-informed understanding of his contemporaries and employs many elements of both the galant and classical styles.
The first movement opens in typical 18th-century fashion, in sonata-allegro form. In a lengthy transition that spans 73 measures, the music teases the dominant key of B-flat major as the woodwinds fight back and confirm the key of E-flat major. The music seems to turn angry about being tricked and demands to be taken to the dominant key.
The oboe enters with the light and tender secondary theme over a full string section, firmly in the key of B-flat major. The bassoon and flute try their hands at developing the theme, yet fall out after one phrase, leaving the strings to support the music. The movement has a heavily adjusted recapitulation that begins in m. This time around, during the primary theme and transition, the woodwind and string parts are largely inverted.
Where the strings were once featured, now the woodwinds are, allowing the flute to take the glory from the first violin, although the oboe once again carries the secondary theme.
Sinfonia Concertante for Four Winds
Concerto Concertant, P.227 (Danzi, Franz)