De humani corporis fabrica libri septem Uit Wikipedia, de vrije encyclopedie Handgekleurde houtsnede van Johan Stefan van Kalkar 7e houtsnede van Vesalius De humani corporis fabrica libri septem Zeven boeken over de bouw van het menselijk lichaam is een anatomieboek geschreven door Vesalius , gepubliceerd in Bazel in , het jaar dat de De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium Over de omwentelingen der hemellichamen van Nicolaus Copernicus verscheen. De serie bestond uit een zevental boeken, die ieder een ander onderdeel van de anatomie behandelden. Tot het boek over de spieren, bijvoorbeeld, behoorden onder andere 14 houtsneden van de spieren , waarvan hier de zevende is afgebeeld. Dit wordt hier gesymboliseerd door het touw om de nek. De 14 platen, naast elkaar gelegd, laten op de achtergrond een panoramatekening zien, wellicht de Eugenische heuvels van Abano Terme, een landstreek even buiten Padua.
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Books of the collection[ edit ] Vesalius arranged his work into seven books. Book 1: The Bones and Cartilages[ edit ] The first book constitutes about a quarter of the entire collection. It covers the physical appearance of human bones and the differentiation of human bones and cartilage by function. In each chapter Vesalius describes the bones in great detail, explaining their physical qualities in different ways. In the opening chapters, Vesalius "gives general aspects of bones and skeletal organisation, dealing with the differences in texture, strength, and resilience between bone and cartilage; explaining the complex differences between types of joints and reviewing some basic elements of descriptive techniques and terminology.
Book 2: The Ligaments and Muscles[ edit ] Here Vesalius describes the structure of the muscles, the agents used in creating movement by the body, and the material used to hold the joints together. Through his observations of butchers cutting meat, he was able to incorporate the skills they used in the dissection of the human body. The order in which to dissect a human body to effectively observe each muscle in the body is laid out.
Each illustration displays a deepening view of the human body which can be followed while dissecting a human body. Vesalius also mentions the instruments needed to perform a dissection. He even continues to describe some of the structures in the way Galen would. Book 3: The Veins and Arteries, Book 4: The Nerves[ edit ] In Books 3 and 4, Vesalius describes the veins, arteries, and nerves as vessels, but notes their differing physical structure: veins and arteries contains a hollow channel, but nerves do not.
Vesalius describes the route by which air travels through the lungs and the heart. He describes this process as "a tree whose trunks divide into branches and twigs". He also describes how the body contains four veins the portal vein, the venae cavae, the artery-like vein [now understood as the Pulmonary Vein ], and the umbilical vein and two arteries the aorta, and the vein-like artery [now understood as the Pulmonary Artery ] as being the main vessels which branch out into smaller veins and arteries.
Vesalius lists some six hundred vessels in his tabulation of arteries, veins and nerves, but fails to mention the smaller vessels located in the hands and feet, the terminal vessels of the cutaneous nerves, or the vessels in the lungs and liver.
Book 5: The Organs of Nutrition and Generation[ edit ] Vesalius gives detailed descriptions of the organs of nutrition, the urinary system, and the male and female reproductive systems.
The alimentary and reproductive systems each make up about forty percent of this book, and the description of the renal system and the correct technique for dissecting it makes up the remainder. In the final chapter, the longest chapter of the entire collection, Vesalius gives detailed step-by-step instructions on how to dissect the abdominopelvic organs. In the first half of the book, Vesalius describes the peritoneum, the esophagus, the stomach, the omentum, the intestines and the mesentery.
He then goes on to describe the liver, gall bladder, and the spleen. Finally, he describes the kidneys, the bladder, and the ureters. These books describe the structure and functions of the heart and the organs of respiration, the brain and its coverings, the eye, the organs of sensation, and the nerves of the limbs.
A chapter is also devoted to the dissection of the eye. Vesalius describes the organs of the body in great detail by commenting "on the variable strength of the attachment of the pleura to the thoracic walls, the strong attachment of the pericardium to the diaphragm, the shape and orientation of the ventricles of the heart, and the description of the semilunar valves.
Image from De humani corporis fabrica , page The woodcuts were greatly superior to the illustrations in anatomical atlases of the day, which were never made by anatomy professors themselves. The woodcut blocks were transported to Basel, Switzerland , as Vesalius wished that the work be published by one of the foremost printers of the time, Johannes Oporinus. The illustrations were engraved on wooden blocks, which allowed for very fine detail. He was appointed physician to the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V ; Vesalius presented him with the first published copy bound in silk of imperial purple, with specially hand-painted illustrations not found in any other copy.
To accompany the Fabrica, Vesalius published a condensed and less expensive Epitome: at the time of publication in , it cost 10 batzen.
Andreae Vesalii ... De humani corporis fabrica libri septem
De humani corporis fabrica