Por ello decimos que esas sociedades tienen culturas diferentes. Dentro de los estudios de las diferencias culturales es imprescindible nombrar a Hofstede. Este investigador es el autor del modelo de las cinco dimensiones culturales. Son patrones culturales.
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The six dimensions of national culture are based on extensive research done by Professor Geert Hofstede, Gert Jan Hofstede, Michael Minkov and their research teams. The application of this research is used worldwide in both academic and professional management settings. The cultural dimensions represent independent preferences for one state of affairs over another that distinguish countries rather than individuals from each other. The country scores on the dimensions are relative, in that we are all human and simultaneously we are all unique.
In other words, culture can only be used meaningfully by comparison. The fundamental issue here is how a society handles inequalities among people. People in societies exhibiting a large degree of Power Distance accept a hierarchical order in which everybody has a place and which needs no further justification.
In societies with low Power Distance, people strive to equalise the distribution of power and demand justification for inequalities of power. Its opposite, Collectivism, represents a preference for a tightly-knit framework in society in which individuals can expect their relatives or members of a particular ingroup to look after them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty.
Society at large is more competitive. Its opposite, Femininity, stands for a preference for cooperation, modesty, caring for the weak and quality of life.
Society at large is more consensus-oriented. The fundamental issue here is how a society deals with the fact that the future can never be known: should we try to control the future or just let it happen? Countries exhibiting strong UAI maintain rigid codes of belief and behaviour, and are intolerant of unorthodox behaviour and ideas.
Weak UAI societies maintain a more relaxed attitude in which practice counts more than principles. Societies prioritize these two existential goals differently. Societies who score low on this dimension, for example, prefer to maintain time-honoured traditions and norms while viewing societal change with suspicion. Those with a culture which scores high, on the other hand, take a more pragmatic approach: they encourage thrift and efforts in modern education as a way to prepare for the future.
In the academic environment, the terminology Monumentalism versus Flexhumility is sometimes also used. Restraint stands for a society that suppresses gratification of needs and regulates it by means of strict social norms. He analysed a large database of employee value scores collected within IBM between and The data covered more than 70 countries, from which Hofstede first used the 40 countries with the largest groups of respondents and afterwards extended the analysis to 50 countries and 3 regions.
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