The government of the Bangsamoro shall have a ministerial form. The Parties agree to entrench an electoral system suitable to a ministerial form of government. The electoral system shall allow democratic participation, ensure accountability of public officers primarily to their constituents and encourage formation of genuinely principled political parties. The electoral system shall be contained in the Bangsamoro Basic Law to be implemented through legislation enacted by the Bangsamoro Government and correlated with national laws.
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This prompted the Marcos regime to beef up military presence by deploying almost three-fourths of the army in most Muslim parts of Mindanao. Things took a different turn in when Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi brokered an agreement that led to the signing of the Tripoli Agreement that introduced the concept of an autonomous Muslim region in Mindanao.
However, out of the 13 provinces and 9 cities that participated in the plebiscite , only the provinces of Lanao del Sur , Maguindanao , Sulu and Tawi-Tawi opted to become part of the ARMM. Though the combined strength of these two rebel forces has not reached a point of posing any real threat to the government in Manila , their existence—and the reasons for their resilience—certainly brings lots of headaches for the government.
For nearly five decades, five presidents have tried to completely end these two rebellions, utilizing both force and diplomacy. So far, no combination has succeeded. Perhaps the most remarkable effort to bring closure to these movements was that of the Ramos Administration, which tried to reach out to both the communist and Muslim rebels through peaceful means.
Ramos sat down with the rebel leaders in an attempt to solve both problems at their roots. Ramos had actively pursued the assistance of foreign Muslim leaders to solve the problem in Mindanao. Thus, he strongly sought the intercession of Gaddafi because of his instrumental role in the signing of the Tripoli Agreement earlier in Misuari was elected governor of the ARMM and was tasked to supervise the implementation of the peace pact.
Unfortunately, other factions within the MNLF were not satisfied with this peace pact and saw this as a deviation from the framework of the Tripoli Agreement. Ramos negotiates with the MILF, Estrada balks[ edit ] The exploratory and preparatory talks between the government and the MILF started in August , followed by low-level negotiations commencing January the following year. The president himself led the military in raising the Philippine flag in the erstwhile rebel stronghold, bringing trucks of lechon roasted pig and beer for the triumphant soldiers in what was considered as an insult to the MILF —because pork and alcohol are both prohibited in Islam.
Arroyo resumes peace talks[ edit ] On March 31, , Republic Act  lapsed into law without the signature of the president. Later that year, the peace process fell apart when the military attacked the MILF just a day after the ancestral domain aspect of the Tripoli Agreement was signed in Libya. This attack was based on intelligence reports that the MILF has been aiding the Abu Sayyaf terrorist group, which at that time held some American and Filipino hostages in Basilan.
A ceasefire would once again ensue after informal talks between the government and the MILF through the intercession of Malaysia. A hundred people died in the incident. The government quelled this rebellion and Misuari escaped to Sabah , but the Malaysian government later on deported him back to the Philippines to face rebellion charges.
On May 6, , the fourth round of formal peace talks between the government and the MILF resulted in both parties agreeing to veto criminal syndicates and kidnap-for-ransom groups in Mindanao, and to implement the Humanitarian Rehabilitation and Development aspect of the Tripoli Agreement. A final draft of the peace accord was presented to the leaders of Congress on February 10, , but on the next day, a setback would ensue as the military launched an offensive in Buliok Complex against the MILF which would last for more than a week.
Ceasefire was enforced three weeks later. Until the end of , the peace process remained in a deadlock due to constitutional and legal issues surrounding the ancestral domain aspect. The Malaysian government on the other side have strongly condemn any terrorist activity and expressed unequivocal support for peace negotiations between Moro rebels and the Philippine government rather than helping the rebels as Malaysia did in after the Jabidah massacre.
Malaysian Defence Minister at the time Najib Razak make a speech on his country intention on the issues: Let the audience know that Kuala Lumpur stood with the Philippine government.
If indeed it claims to represent Muslims, the Moro movements must combat radicalism and militant elements within its organisation. Instead the rebels must concentrate on bringing greater development to the community instead of merely aiming to seize power. Let us call for a jihad against poverty , against ignorance, against underdevelopment and against prejudice.
This agreement was scheduled to be signed on August 5, with the final peace agreement set to be concluded by November. According to the Court, the peace panel and even the president do not have the authority to make such guarantees because they do not have the power to propose amendments to the Constitution, such power being vested exclusively in Congress.
The junking of the MOA-AD marked another setback for the peace process, with the armed conflicts for the year reaching a record-high of 30 incidents in Mindanao. In an effort to salvage the negotiations, Arroyo declared the suspension of military operations against the MILF on July Resumption of peace talks under Aquino Presidency[ edit ] The administration of Benigno Aquino III resumed peace negotiations, the 20th round, with the MILF in February ,  after the rebel group announced that they were no longer seeking secession from the Philippines.
But the prospects for peace remained elusive as rogue MILF forces conducted sporadic attacks against government forces in several areas in Mindanao despite the existing ceasefire agreement. Women in the peace process[ edit ] Women played active roles in both the formal and informal negotiations in the Mindanao peace process that brought an end to open hostilities in Women also held a number of meaningful positions on the negotiating teams of both parties to the conflict.
Women reportedly fostered communication between different tracks of negotiations. This new document, while merely providing for a general framework for the actual peace negotiations, announces that "the status quo is unacceptable and that the Bangsamoro shall be established to replace the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao ARMM. The agreement would pave the way for the creation of the new Muslim autonomous entity called "Bangsamoro" under a law to be approved by the Philippine Congress.
The government aims to set up the region by The agreement calls for Muslim self-rule in parts of the southern Philippines in exchange for a deactivation of rebel forces by the MILF. A regional police force would be established and the Philippine military would reduce the presence of troops and help disband private armies in the area.
2012 Framework Agreement on the Bangsamoro political region
In , poverty incidence in the region was at All provinces in the region were also recorded to be above the national poverty incidence of This did not happen for lack of funds. Poverty, corruption, and impunity in the region cannot be defeated without structural change. Second, the agreement has been done in full transparency, as noted by its publication online prior to its signing. Third, there is no mention of ancestral domain in the document.
The 2012 Framework Agreement on the Bangsamoro
On 7 October, President Aquino announced that the two parties have agreed to sign a preliminary peace agreement which calls for the creation of an autonomous political entity named Bangsamoro , superseding the Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao ARMM. He criticized the ARMM as a "failed experiment" that did not address issues such as electoral fraud, political patronage, poverty, war and warlordism. Aquino stated that structural reform is necessary, with the creation of Bangsamoro solving these issues while upholding national sovereignty. The agreement was reached after 32 peace talks between the two parties that spanned a period of nine years. The agreement was sealed at about PST. The EU foreign affairs chief also said "the EU, as a member of the International Monitoring Team and major development partner in poverty alleviation in Mindanao since , will continue to lend its full support. Japan — The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan said that Japan "heartily welcomes" the Framework Agreement, which it described as the first step towards the realization of the peace process in Mindanao.
Framework Agreement on the Bangsamoro