See also: Thermal column Firestorm schematic: 1 fire, 2 updraft, 3 strong gusty winds, A pyrocumulonimbus cloud A firestorm is created as a result of the stack effect as the heat of the original fire draws in more and more of the surrounding air. This draft can be quickly increased if a low-level jet stream exists over or near the fire. As the updraft mushrooms, strong inwardly-directed gusty winds develop around the fire, supplying it with additional air. This would seem to prevent the firestorm from spreading on the wind, but the tremendous turbulence created may also cause the strong surface inflow winds to change direction erratically. Firestorms resulting from the bombardment of urban areas in the Second World War were generally confined to the areas initially seeded with incendiary devices, and the firestorm did not appreciably spread outward. This occurred with the Durango fire,  and probably with the much greater Peshtigo Fire.
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Transport[ edit ] Crossing the Dudding Hill Line in late Victorian times, near the eastern end of the now-closed Dudding Hill railway station , and at the western end of Gladstone Park Dollis Hill tube station on the London Underground Jubilee line is about a minute walk away from the park, to the south-west.
Cricklewood Thameslink station is to the east. Bus services also run through the area. The park is situated on both sides of the Dudding Hill Line. This railway is currently only used by freight trains, but it has been subject to various railway schemes over the years, including a recent proposal for a radial North and West London Light railway NWLLR , which might result in a light-rail stop being built at one or both ends of the park.
There is a footbridge over the railway at the western end of the park, and a private road bridge only used by Brent Parks Service at the eastern end. However, considerable opposition to the proposal, mainly on cost grounds, arose from other parts of Willesden , largely driven by the editor of the Willesden Chronicle from his office in South Kilburn. Gladstone Park c. He recommended acquisition of the land. The Municipal Borough of Willesden was left to find the rest of the money from their ratepayers and from donations.
William Gladstone The contract to purchase the house, garden, and estate from "Robert Augustus Finch and others" was signed by the Council on 9 August , and soon afterwards, notices to terminate existing tenancies except that for the house and gardens were sent out. Despite some reservations by local Conservatives, on 12 December it was formally agreed to name the park after William Ewart Gladstone , the old Prime Minister who had died the previous year, and who had spent many happy hours there.
Purchase was completed early in The Earl of Rosebery, recently twice Prime Minister, had promised to perform the opening ceremony on Saturday 25 May , but was prevented from attending by the death of his mother. In his absence, the park was declared open by the Earl of Aberdeen. Design[ edit ] Copy of map of park taken from the land purchase document. The route of the Dudding Hill Line railway is obvious, and widens at the western end, at Dudding Hill station Once it had been agreed that Gladstone Park should become a reality, the main planning was handed over to Oliver Claude Robson, the District Council Surveyor who was to serve for 43 years, from to The much larger Gladstone Park was to prove a rather less challenging undertaking.
It was decided to leave the northern part of new park in its "original and natural beauty", and devote the section south of the railway to sports. The latter was to prove useful to Robson since it was levelled with slop road refuse , for which he was always short of landfill sites. Hedges and ditches dividing these southern fields were obliterated, but some trees were left standing. These subsequently became a problem to the Council, perhaps for health reasons, and were dispensed with in Cleverly, Robson waited for the public to mark out what he called "trespass paths" across the park before converting them to metalled pathways.
Some plantations in Roundwood Park were thinned and the surplus trees transplanted at Gladstone Park. Hundreds of plane trees were set along the pathways. A major event for Willesden was the provision of its first public swimming bath now closed , which Robson designed in It was based on Harrow School swimming bath, which representatives of the Council had visited and approved. The park constable occupied the rear portion of the house. For many years there had been worries about the level crossing over the Dudding Hill Line where the public were exposed to danger from the trains.
There was an intention to provide two subways under the railway to improve communications between southern and northern sections of the park but, although the Midland Railway Company raised no objection to the work, it never materialised. However, in October the Council entered into an agreement with the Midland for the erection of a footbridge to replace the old crossing. Many other works by Robson were completed before he took retirement in It has ninety-seven acres of parkland as well as the twenty-seven acres of the William Gladstone open space on its eastern perimeter.
Maintained by Brent Parks Service, it is the most heavily used park in Brent and is a current[ when? The award is based on high environmental standards, quality of green space, amenity values and community involvement.
Gladstone Park has a formal garden, duck pond , varied terrain, woodland, hedgerows and open ground, all of which change with the seasons. On clear days it offers views from the top of the hill 65 metres above sea level of London and the surrounding area, including Wembley Stadium , Parliament, the City , the London Eye and the Shard. In the Council, police and local charities carried out several initiatives to deal with large numbers of people sleeping rough in the park.
Most of them were Romanians seeking to work in the UK, some obtaining employment informally in nearby Cricklewood.
Transport[ edit ] Crossing the Dudding Hill Line in late Victorian times, near the eastern end of the now-closed Dudding Hill railway station , and at the western end of Gladstone Park Dollis Hill tube station on the London Underground Jubilee line is about a minute walk away from the park, to the south-west. Cricklewood Thameslink station is to the east. Bus services also run through the area. The park is situated on both sides of the Dudding Hill Line. This railway is currently only used by freight trains, but it has been subject to various railway schemes over the years, including a recent proposal for a radial North and West London Light railway NWLLR , which might result in a light-rail stop being built at one or both ends of the park.
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However, temperature variations on Mars follow the hours of sunlight more closely since the atmosphere is quite thin, and there are no bodies of water to retain heat after dark. Seasonal variations may be more precisely specified by the parameter Ls, which is the areocentric longitude of the Sun. It is an angular measure of the position of a planet in its orbit. So Ls provides a convenient way of measuring the changes in season. Also, solstice means "the Sun stands still", and refers to the observation that near the Summer and Winter Solstice dates, the sunrise and sunset times do not vary appreciably. Given the orbital parameters for both Earth and Mars, one can calculate the values of Ls over a year. Due to the eccentric orbit of Mars, the variation in Ls with each Mars day is not linear over the year.
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Gladstone Park, London