Hybridization takes many forms:linguistic, cultural,political, racial, etc. Linguistic examples include pidgin and creole languages, and these echo the foundational use of the term by the linguist and cultural theorist Mikhail Bakhtin ,who used it to suggest the disruptive and transfiguring power of multivocal language situations and, by extension, of multivocal narratives. For him, the recognition of this ambivalent space of cultural identity may help us to overcome the exoticism of cultural diversity in favour of the recognition of an empowering hybridity within which cultural difference may operate: It is significant that the productive capacities of this Third Space have a colonial or postcolonial provenance. For a willingness to descend into that alien territory. This use of the term has been widely criticized, since it usually implies negating and neglecting the imbalance and inequality of the power relations it references. The idea of hybridity also underlies other attempts to stress the mutuality of cultures in the colonial and post-colonial process in expressions of syncreticity, cultural synergy and transculturation.

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Akizilkree It is that Third Space, though unrepresentable in itself, which constitutes the discursive conditions of enunciation that ensure that the meaning and symbols of culture have no primordial unity or fixity; that even the same signs can be appropriated, translated, rehistoricized, and read anew.

Bhabha Both the provinces and the empire experienced a number of changes, which cannot be formulated in terms of hybridisation, syncretism or acculturation cf. The criticism is true to some extent: For instance, the later administration of the English and their missionaries in the same area created a very different situation which by no means was built on mediation cf. Instead, we find clusters of interwoven fibres, that is, practices or material patterns, of varying extent in time and space that may coincide with an ethnic group, but we should not be surprised if this way of looking at social practice turns out as something that crisscrosses assumed cultural units, regions or ethnicities.

These observations and insights are the result of empirical observations recognised by many anthropologists, but seem in general to have surpassed most archaeologists. The material dimension is not to be forgotten here.

The contact situation of the upper himi is, however, only one example of a colonial encounter with its own social and material circumstances.

She describes the strategy of a Czech Jew at Treblinka who applied a kind of mimicry in order to survive the holocaust. It is not a situation only restricted to confrontations between different individuals and groups, but also concerns encounters between individuals and materialities.

Writers, such as Homi Bhabha and Salman Rushdie, who proceed from a consideration of the nature of postcolonial societies and the types of hybridization these various cultures have produced, proposed a radical rethinking—an appropriation of the European thinking by a different discourse.

The concept of mimicry also applies on a material level. But, we do need to come to terms with the fact that our most familiar entities of prehistory Bell-Beakers, Greeks, and Vikings etc also were caught in processes of hybridity. Tag: third space of enunciation In his dialogism thidd, Mikhail Bakhtin emphasizes a space of enunciation where negotiation of discursive doubleness gives birth to a new speech act: The fluidity of rock art. But in order to avoid simplistic arguments of the importance of specific individuals or generalising models of anonymous acculturation, diffusion, invasion, or exchange, the analytic field of encounters need to be adhered from a more varied and complex perspective.

To Bhabha, social groups and bhabah have no or little essence but are mainly effects of expressions of power and certain discourses. But instead of simply viewing similarities as an indication of diffusion, exchange or acculturation, we may be able to identify more complex processes of mimicry. It rejoices in mongrelization and fears the absolutism of the Pure. Chapter Two 41 Stein, Gil ed The knapped spear points manufactured using broken glass bottles and ceramics look similar to traditional Aboriginal stone artefacts, but are of little practical use Harrison The case concerns a situation that occurred in Januarywhen the British decided to finally occupy Zululand in the south of Africa.

To find out more, including how to control cookies, see here: The third space of enunciation is employed as a metaphor for the ambiguous virtual field that emerges when two bhabh more individuals interact. Bill Thompson offers an opposite conceptualisation of Third Space as public, civic space in the built environment under pressure from shopping malls and corporate sppace, transforming public space into an extension of the market.

Instead, Bhabha argues, social encounters result in contradictory and ambivalent spaces in which social identities and ideologies are questioned and negotiated.

Third Space Theory suggests that policies of remediation based in models of the Other are likely to be inadequate. In order to move from the first to the second floor or vice versa, one needs to use the stairs. We should not expect to find similar developments in other encounter situations. Bhabha employs the concept for the effects that occur in any situation of encounters, which have more or less significant consequences.

They all have developed in relation to a larger context and therefore consist of elements of different origins which they to a varying extent have in common. Postcolonial studies cover a great variety of approaches outlined in the works of e. It is rather a practice that involves both mockery and resistance. Towards a history of the vanishing present. Cultural difference has to be acknowledged: The beginning of the fight was a mere massacre; despite their overwhelming numbers the Zulus were gunned down in great speed by the English army.

Entangled Objects and Hybrid Practices. Somewhat contrary to Spivak, Bhabha thus allows the subaltern a voice Bhabha It is certainly true that social collectives are to some extent disordered by conflicting ideas, multiple voices, and interpretations, but as Barth argues, we should nonetheless expect to find: The recent approaches show that the power of postcolonial theory lies in its comparative methodology and the hybridized and syncretic view of the modern world which it implies.

They merged them into something quite different from the Algonquian, Iroquoian, and French cultures that gave them birth White Colonialism and archaeology in the Mediterranean. The Archaeology of Colonial Encounters Stein ed. The ceramics were certainly not just dumped upon the Etruscans Osbourne suggests that the example reveals an active and creative element in the manner which the indigenous peoples of Etruria appropriated Greek mythology Osbourne The enunciation of cultural difference problematizes the division of past and present, tradition and modernity, at the level of cultural representation and its authoritative address.

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Homi K. Bhabha The revision of the history of critical theory rests … on the notion of cultural difference, not cultural diversity. That iteration negates our sense of the origins of the struggle. It undermines our sense of the homogenizing effects of cultural symbols and icons, by questioning our sense of the authority of cultural synthesis in general.


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