Quality control inspection companies often simply refer to it as the carton drop test. This test method forms part of almost all inspections. While the outer carton almost always deforms, the products may still be protected from breakage. General guidelines exist but the importer is usually asked to define what is acceptable — and what is not.
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To accomplish this, the ASTM standard package test outlines a test plan of anticipated transportation hazards. These hazards replicate the shipping container stress as a form of packaging performance testing. ASTM D shipping container performance tests require that all test specimens be samples of the complete shipping units.
The units should contain the actual contents. Dummy test loads are acceptable if the testing of the actual product might be hazardous. It is very important that the test specimens not incur degradation on their way to the lab. This includes both the product and the package. If there is any doubt, the product should be repackaged in a new package.
The number of test cycles will depend on the objectives of the testing along with the availability of duplicate products and shipping containers.
ASTM D testing recommends replicating testing to improve the reliability of the test results. It is required that the shipping units remain unopened until the sequence of tests are completed. If the testing is for research and development, containers can be opened periodically. This can help determine the ability of the package to survive specific tests. The ASTM D protocol test sequence includes the following steps: Define the shipping unit in terms of size, weight and form of construction.
It also must be determined if the container will be manually or mechanically handled. Establish the assurance level or level of test intensity. The level is based on the product value and desired level of anticipated damage to be tolerated. The number of units to be shipped and knowledge of the shipping environment should also be considered. Determine the acceptance criteria for the shipping container test.
The acceptance criteria for package validation of ASTM D testing must be established prior to testing. The criteria should consider the condition of the product at receipt. The organizations conducting the test may choose any acceptance criteria suitable for their purpose. In most cases, the acceptance criteria can be: Criterion 1: Product is damage-free Criterion 2: Package is intact Criterion 3: Both criteria one and two Select the distribution cycle.
D package stress testing outlines a number of different distribution cycles. They include types of dynamics testing and climatic testing: Schedule A: Handling, manual and mechanical. Manual handling includes loading, unloading, stacking, sorting or palletizing. The main hazards from these activities are the impacts caused by dropping or throwing. Several test method options are permitted.
Schedule B: Warehouse stacking test method determines the ability of the shipping unit to withstand compressive loads. These loads occur during warehouse storage or vehicle transport.
Schedule C: Vehicle stacking test requires that the loading must consider the effects of the length of time in storage.
Other considerations include container stacking pattern, container strength variability, method of load transport and vibration. Environmental impacts such as moisture content and temperature must also be considered. Schedule D: Stacked vibration. This test method determines the ability to withstand vertical vibration and the compression resulting from vehicle stacking as simulated by an ASTM vibration test.
Schedule E: Vehicle vibration. This vibration does not include the compression from vehicle stacking. Acceptable vibration testing can include sine vibration and random vibration.
Schedule F: Load testing services such as loose load vibration. This simulates the repetitive shocks that occur during transportation of bulk or loose loads. Schedule G: Rail switching. There are various acceleration levels and compression forces that occur during rail switching operations. Schedule H: Environmental hazard. This schedule accounts for the rapid changes in ambient conditions.
These are most associated with the military distribution of material. These conditions include moisture, temperature shock, solar radiation and water spray. This type of testing is also known as environmental testing.
Schedule I: Low pressure hazard testing. The reduction in pressure when packaged products are transported via certain methods must be accounted for. These methods include feeder aircraft or by ground over mountain passes. Schedule J: Concentrated impact. Packages often experience numerous impacts during sorting operations and in transit.
This package test schedule simulates those impacts. Select the samples for testing. Condition the samples. Evaluate the results to determine if the units meet the acceptance criteria.
Document the test results by reporting each step. Monitor shipments to ensure that the type and quantity of damage obtained by the lab testing correlates with the damage that occurs in the distribution cycle.
ASTM D5276 - 19
To accomplish this, the ASTM standard package test outlines a test plan of anticipated transportation hazards. These hazards replicate the shipping container stress as a form of packaging performance testing. ASTM D shipping container performance tests require that all test specimens be samples of the complete shipping units. The units should contain the actual contents. Dummy test loads are acceptable if the testing of the actual product might be hazardous. It is very important that the test specimens not incur degradation on their way to the lab. This includes both the product and the package.
For containers that are less than lbs. This test can be used to compare package containers. Different designs can be tested and compared for protective capability. It is also beneficial to perform this test to observe the failure of a container and the resulting damage to its contents. ASTM D is best suited for containers that are typically manually handled at some point throughout the distribution cycle. If a container is so large or heavy that it cannot be handled manually, then there may be a different test that is better suited for optimal test results. There are specific requirements for the free-fall drop test equipment.
ISTA Standard 1A